Geography and Foreign Policy, I – Volume 32 Issue 1 – Nicholas J. Spykman. GEOGRAPHY AND FOREIGN POLICY, I NICHOLAS J. SPYKMAN. Yale University. “La politique de toutes les puissances est dans leur geographie,”‘ conceded. Nicholas John Spykman was an American political scientist who was one of the founders of the In his writings on geography and foreign policy, Spykman was somewhat of a geographical determinist. Since geography was “the most.

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He was convinced that, once Germany and Japan had been defeated, they should had both been included into an anti-Soviet alliance, spykkman to the fact that Moscow would be left in a too favourable position in Eurasia.

Still, psykman Soviet Union was to remain the greatest land power in Asia and could be a peacekeeper or a problem.

Spykman of Yale Dies at 49″. Retrieved from ” https: The Politics of Writing Global Space. Spykman’s work is based on assumptions similar to Mackinder, the unity of world politics and the unity of the world sea, but extends it to include the unity of the air. But especially in order to establish a modern and articulated system of communication, Spykman explained, geography again played a crucial role, since the shape and topography of territory heavily conditioned such an enterprise.

Spykman was opposed to European integration and argued that US interests favored balanced power in Europe, rather than integrated power. Spykman states that historically, battles have pitted either Britain and Rimland allies against Russia and its Rimland allies or Britain and Russia together against a dominating Rimland power.

Nicholas J. Spykman

But the geography of a state cannot be ignored by men who formulate its policy. Inhe came to Yale Universitywhere he was an assistant professor of international relations.

Share on Facebook Share. For Collins, territorial resource and geo-positional advantages were the two fundamental geopolitical advantages of world power, and they worked cumulatively over time.

Rediscovering Spykman – the Rimland, Geography of Peace and Foreign Policy

Such views were expressed by Spykman when the anti-Japanese and anti-German propaganda was at its heights in America and Washington was allied with the Soviets against the Tripartite Pact Williamson Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. He worked as a journalist in various parts of the world during much of the s and also served as a diplomatic assistant for the Netherlands in Egypt and the Dutch East Indies.


In the late s, German geopolitical science was flourishing, especially because of the Munich School and its widely read journal Die Zeitschrift fuer Geopolitik. Mahan Sumida As the amphibious buffer zone between the land powers and sea powers, it must defend itself from both sides, the cause of its fundamental security problems.

Every government official responsible for policy should read it once a year for the next twenty years—even if he may not agree with some of the remedies proposed. Since the political and material center of gravity was in the Western part of the USSR, Spykman sees little possibility of the Soviets exerting much power in Central Asia.

As a result, the theoretical and analytical work of Dutch-born American scholar Nicholas J. In the industrial-technological era of the Cold War, the two superpowers were very large states: Other than the two continents, there are offshore islands of significance are Britain, Japan and the New Worldbuffered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.

Spykman was born on 13 October in Amsterdam. He also forecast the rise of China, becoming the dominant power in Asia and that the US would thus take responsibility for Japan’s defense. He could be considered as a disciple and critic of both geostrategists Alfred Mahanof the United States Navyand Halford Mackinderthe British geographer. Owen and Francis Sempa in the U. The exploration of the entire world means that the foreign policy of any nation will affect more than its immediate neighbors; it will affect the alignment of nations throughout the world’s regions.

Rediscovering Spykman – the Rimland, Geography of Peace and Foreign Policy |

Spykman predicted that Japan would lose the Pacific War and that China and Russia would remain to struggle against eac other over boundaries. Strategically, there was no difference between Germany dominating all the way to the Ural or Russia controlling all the way to Germany, and as both scenarios were equally threatening to the US. American people of Dutch descent Geopoliticians Guggenheim Fellows Military geographers Political realists births deaths Dutch journalists Dutch diplomats University of California alumni University of California faculty Yale University faculty.

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Indeed, the Soviet’s raw materials were largely located to the West of the Ural Mountains as well. While Spykman accepts the first two as defined, he rejects the simple grouping the Asian countries into one “monsoon land. Views Read Edit View history.

All of the examples that Spykman introduced in his and articles were taken from history, instead than from mere theories.

Spykman has been less accurately and less deeply reconsidered. Sociology and Social Research. However, in the last decade, IR theory, and particularly offensive realism and neo-classical realism, seems to have rediscovered geography Mearsheimer ; Mouritzen and Wivel A Sterling Professor of International Relations, teaching as part of the Institute for International Studies at Yale Universityone of his prime concerns was making his students geographically literate, as geopolitics was impossible without geographic understanding.

Spykman sees both continents’ geopolitical status as determined respectively by the state of control over the Mediterranean Sea and the “Asiatic Mediterranean. Therefore, British, Russian, and US power would play the key roles in controlling the European litoral and there the essential power relations of the world. There are two offshore continents flanking Eurasia: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Contrary to Mackinder, he believed that geography gave the U. He clarified Spykman Presciently, Spykman also foresaw the irresistible rise of the Pacific Ocean as a key route for world trade. John Foster Dulles and the founders of the containment strategy would borrow heavily from Spykman, as well as Mackinder, when forging the American Cold War strategy.

Induring some of the hardest times in WWII, he almost caused a scandal as he publicly expressed his unconventional views about the desirable post-war American diplomacy. Spykman sees that its importance to be the reason that the Rimland will be crucial to containing the Heartland, but Mackinder had believed that the Outer or Insular Crescent would be the most important factor in containing the Heartland. April Learn how and when to remove this template message.